I’m going to be writing some things about regional education issues for RVA News. I’m going to link to them all below.

EDU FAQ #001: Where do we even start?

EDU FAQ #002: What’s all this about teacher salaries?

EDU FAQ #003: How does one understand the RPS budget without exploding in frustration?

EDU FAQ #004.1:What’s all this talk about closing the budget gaps? Operating Budget Edition

EDU FAQ #004.2: What’s all the talk about closing the budget gaps? Facilities Edition

EDU FAQ #005: What’s the reasoning behind closing schools?

EDU FAQ #006: What would school closings really have meant?

References for EDU FAQ #006

Note: This list is only for sources that were not otherwise linked in the article.

American Federation of Teacher. (2012). Closing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: What the Research and Researchers Say. Research Summary. American Federation Of Teachers. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Bakioglu, A. & Geyin, C. (2009). What does school size do: Safety perceptions of educators and students. US-China Education Review, 6(10), 1-8. Retrieved from

Billingham, C. M., & Hunt, M. O. (2016). School racial composition and parental choice: New evidence on the preferences of white parents in the United States. Sociology of Education, 89(2), 99.

Bishop, M.E. (2009). A case study on facility design: The impact of new high school facilities in Virginia on student achievement and staff attitudes and behaviors. Order No. 3344635, The George Washington University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 212.

Branham, D. (2004). The wise man builds his house upon the rock: The effects of inadequate school building infrastructure on student attendance. Social Science Quarterly, 85(5), 1112-1128. doi: 10.1111/j.0038-4941.2004.00266.x

Carlson, D. & Lavertu, S. (2015). School closures and student achievement: An analysis of Ohio’s urban district and charter schools. Thomas B Fordham Institute. Retrieved from

Churchill, A. & Petrilli, M.J. (2015) ForwardIn D. Carlson and S. Lavertu, School closures and student achievement: An analysis of Ohio’s urban district and charter schools. (p. 1)

Earthman, G.I, Cash, C. S., Berkum, D.V. (1995). A statewide study of student achievement and behavior and school building condition. Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, 2-17.

Gershenson, S., & Langbein, L. (2015). The Effect of Primary School Size on Academic Achievement. Educational Evaluation And Policy Analysis, 37(1), 135S-155S.

Gottfredson, D.C. (1985). School size and social disorder. Center for Social Organization of Schools. Retrieved from ERIC.

Gottfredson, D.C. &  DiPietro, S.M. (2015). School size, social capital, and student victimization. Sociology of Education, 84(1), 69–89.

Gooden, M. & Thompson Dorsey, D. N. (2014). The distorted looking glass: Examining how housing privilege obviates the goals of Brown v. Board of Education at 60.Educational Administration Quarterly50764782.

Holmes, S. J. (2012). The impact of school facility construction and renovation on academic achievement in Texas (Doctoral dissertation, Lamar University, 2011) Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation Publishing.

Jack, J., & Sludden, J. (2013). School Closings in Philadelphia. Penn GSE Perspectives On Urban Education, 10(1).

Klein, J. & Cornell, D. (2010) Is the link between large high schools and student victimization an illusion? Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 933-946.

Lee, V. E., & Smith, J. B. (1997). High school size: Which works best and for whom? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(3), 205-227. doi:10.2307/1164463

Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2009). A review of empirical evidence about school size effects:A policy perspective.Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 464- 490. doi:10.3102/0034654308326158

Lumpkin, R., B. (2013). School facility condition and academic outcome. International Journal of Facility Management, 4 (3).

Research for Action. (2013). School District of Philadelphia School Closings: An Analysis of Student Achievement.

Rivera-Batiz, F.L. & Marti, L. (1995). A school system at risk: A study of the consequences of overcrowding in New York City Public Schools. Retrieved from

Siegel-Hawley, G. (2013). City lines, county lines, color lines: The relationship between school and housing segregation in four southern metro areas. Teachers College Record, 115(6), 1.

Siegel-Hawley, G. (2014). Race, choice and richmond public schools: New possibilities and ongoing challenges for diversity in urban districts. The Urban Review, 46(4), 507-534. doi:10.1007/s11256-014-0277-6

Tanner, K., C. (2008). Explaining the relationships among student outcomes and the school’s physical environment. Journal of Advanced Academics, 19, 444-4471.

Zoda, P., Combs, J. P., & Slate, J. R. (2011). Elementary School Size and Student Performance: A Conceptual Analysis. International Journal Of Educational Leadership Preparation, 6(4),

I also wrote another thing that wasn’t education related, but it was an education.

James River Do’s and Don’ts: A total passion project for me. Enjoy the park without polluting, destroying, or dying.